Introduction. There are a variety of syndromes that affect our pediatric population and constitute a disability that disrupts the entire life of the children who suffer, affecting their family and social environment. In addition to the issues raised, children affected by a syndrome present serious difficulties to access learning, both physical and cognitive. We will not enter the field of the difficulties of integrating these children into formal education, as it would for a completely separate article. Recall that a syndrome is a collection of physical signs and symptoms that constitute a specific pathology. Briefly review some of the syndromes and other lesser known classics that cause serious difficulties in social skills, integration, communication and learning. Down Syndrome.
Definition: Down syndrome was described by Dr. Langdon Down in 1866 and is characterized by mental retardation and a range of physical characteristics that make them resemble the Oriental races. Because this also is called Mongolism (Mongolian). Its prevalence is 2 per 1,000 live births. Characteristics: Children with Down syndrome, as well as mental retardation, have a high incidence of congenital heart disease. His head is smaller than normal children, elongated eyes, with frequent strabismus, their language is not placed well in his narrow mouth, hypotonia, visual and hearing impairments and delays in language development.
Causes: Congenital or trisomy 21, ie provides an extra chromosome in the pair 21. It therefore has 47 chromosomes instead of 46 which corresponds to normal. Prognosis: The prognosis of children with Down syndrome depends on variables characteristic of the syndrome, the family environment and school. Autistic Syndrome. Definition: The autistic syndrome is defined as a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, communication and activity imagination or thought. Today we use the term Autism Spectrum Disorder to refer to a wide range from typical autism, profound or nuclear Kanner (Leo Kanner, 1943) to Asperger Syndrome (Hans Asperger, 1944) and semantic disorder pragmatic (Rapin and Allen, 1983). It has a prevalence of 4.5 per 10,000 live births. Features: changes in social relations resulting in erratic behaviors include avoiding eye contact, to reject the emotional contact, a tendency to isolation, present unusual body movements, self-harm, ritualism and others. Communication deficiencies ranging from total absence of language to shape and function abnormalities of syntax. Finally cognitive disorders are associated with the “Theory of mind” that is, have an inability to attribute mental states to people around them. Cause: More than direct causes, speaking of very different hypotheses and theories that involve aspects physiological and environmental. These range from genetic alterations to the deficiencies of brain function. Are you interested in this item?