Tag Archive: Research

Civilization

The term civilization is used in several ways: stage of historical development of mankind, following the barbaric (L. Morgan, Engels, A. Toffler); synonym of culture (A. Toynbee and others); level (step) of of a region or a single ethnic group (an ancient civilization, for example); a certain stage in the development of local cultures, stage of degradation and decadence ("The Decline of Europe" Spengler). Recognized features civilization is that the transition itself becomes the hub for her moment of a culture. Civilization means the transition to the actual social organization of society, when society was formed, with all its differences from barbarism. Civilization is not confined to just one, albeit very important, the economic parameters of social development, and includes such important factors as cultural studies, geography, spiritual, etc. Civilization – a sustainable cultural and historical community of people, different community of spiritual and moral values and cultural traditions, the similarity of material production and social and political Development features lifestyle and personality type, in most cases, the presence of common ethnic traits and the corresponding geographical scope.

As seen through the prism of history of civilized approach? Extensive material accumulated by the XX century. archeology, ethnography, comparative linguistics and other sciences, the crisis has illusions about the "linear" direction of history and liberal progressivism, most experienced intellectuals under the influence of World War I, served as a prerequisite for the formation of civilized approach to understanding history. It was necessary to broaden the horizons of traditional historical scholarship, to determine place of European culture to other cultures. The essence of civilized approach lies in the fact that human history is divided into several independent entities – the local civilizations, each of which has an independent history, different uniqueness of historical events, unique cultural and historical events. One of the first attempts to describe the history of mankind in terms of local development Civilizations and Cultures closed belongs to the Russian naturalist and philosopher, NY Danilevsky, who in 1871 in his book "Russia and Europe," criticized the commonly understood concept of division of world history on ancient, average, a new and highlighted the following "distinctive civilization," or cultural-historical types: ancient Egyptian, Chinese, Assyrian, Babylonian, Phoenician, or Chaldean, Indian, Iranian, Jewish, Greek, Roman; Neo-Semitic or Arabic, German and Roman, or European. Criticism of the concept of a unified world history and the doctrine of justification set equal to the level of maturity reached by the German culture is carried out philosopher and historian Oswald Spengler.

In his book "The Decline of Europe", he identifies eight types of cultures: Egyptian, Indian, Babylonian, Chinese, "Apollonian" (Greco-Roman), "Faustian" (Western European) culture and the Maya. Each cultural "organism" lives in advance certain clearances (about millennium) period. Dying, the culture is degenerating into a civilization, in the late ossified "mass" culture, where the transition from creative to infertility, to the soulless "intelligence" to the denial of life itself. The originality and uniqueness of each civilization defends the British historian, diplomat and philosopher Arnold Toynbee. In his work "The study of history," he argues, that World History is just a collection of stories of unique individual, relatively closed civilizations, each of which passes in its development stage appearance, growth, and fracture decomposition.

William Shakespeare

When I see that everything that grows, Perfection is only a brief William Shakespeare moment … Although, if you like Homer, Confucius, Vakhilidu, Nasimi Shakespeare people no longer appear in the society, the present stage of its development may well be the end. "If growth stopped, coming to an end" (Seneca). At This even is not part of the world's intellectual elite to Aristotle, it was clear that the development of science and present in such conditions, only accelerate this end. "Who is moving forward in the sciences, but falls short of virtue, the goes back more than forward. " And here, although there is a more accurate and close to one outstanding example of Russian politics, that fact can no longer be part of the intellectual elite of people that question morality really does not apply to any of the sides. "When clearly established that there is a true morality, all else becomes clear" (Confucius). However, until recently known in Russia has always been enough people who do not forgetting about morality: "Suppress a duty and obligation not to recognize, requiring at the same time, all the rights themselves, there is only disgusting" (Dostoevsky).

"Do not forget the debt – it's only music. Life without passion and duty is not " (Alexander Blok). That's because the rest of the world have long forgotten such as the words spoken long before the above words of our compatriots, there has already begun this very Sabbath "beastliness" and a genuine human life is extinguished and thought. And none of their elite no longer able to resist these processes, because in reality there is no intellectual elite. And so our future intellectual elite only need time to understand what is greatest her duty to the "poor intelligence" the rest of the world are still not clear.

With your dignity, my love, my duty to slavishly tightly bound. His testimony I have sent again: Do not mind, but my duty must show. Debt so high that poor mind can not describe its meaning: I want to invest in your thoughts Your basis is currently good conceit. William Shakespeare By the way, this example shows also that the nucleus of the future intellectual elite of Russia should be that's why. "Only the poet is truly human, and compared them with the best philosopher – a caricature" (Schiller). After all, no philosopher has not yet been able to understand that one of the conclusions of the truth connection time is denial law, including the current intellectual "elite."

Marine Geophysical Fiber-optic Measuring System

ZHEREBTSOV VD OAO Sevmorneftegeofizika 'Russia for consideration – Creating a high-tech measuring system for searching and monitoring oil and gas fields. Seismic fiber-optic measuring system (Vaughns) is qualitatively new system for searching and monitoring offshore oil and gas research. WIPO is based on the phase or frequency optical measurement principles. These systems allow you to get higher quality of geological and geophysical information, reduce the cost of research, the life of the measuring devices compared to traditional systems that are based on electromagnetic measurement principles. The use of fiber-measuring techniques for seismic data can improve the resolution of the measurements. In the absence of the influence of electromagnetic interference may WIPO use in industrial areas and improve the search fields. Measurement of the seismic field occurs in a discrete area at 10 Hz, (Optical wavelength X = 0.8-1.68 mm). This simplifies the receiver measuring channel, which virtually no effect in the study alyaysing seismic vibrations at frequencies of F = 1 Hz – 500 Hz.

As well as significantly reduced the effect of reflected and multiple waves of seismic measurements, thereby improving quality data. This report examines the design principles and implementation of WIPO on the basis of fiber-optic hydrophones and geophones, and developed in 2000-2002 Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Sevmorneftegeofizika' and measuring optical phase of the seismic channel, built on the use of a semiconductor laser. Hydrophone developed for Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In laboratory tests, this hydrophone showed an increased sensitivity is 7-8 times as compared with a piezoceramic. Geophone uses inferferometr Fabry-Perot.

and laboratory tests showed an optical sensitivity of the measurement 3×10 'nm, which is greater than characteristics of sensors used for the seismic shift. The measuring system is based on the principle of a modular hierarchical structure with high reliability, performance and expandability. The authors of this paper has several patents on the system implementation of this direction, obtained and executed an international grant. Proceedings of International Conference "Oil and Gas ARCTIC SHELF – 2004 '

Laotian Area

The bird belongs to the family korotkopalyh thrushes and for his appearance was called 'gololitsy Bulbul'. Byulbyulevyh family in Asia are fairly numerous, and includes about 130 species described in the last 100 years. This discovery is particularly interesting, since scientists have been able to find the sole representative of songbirds in Asia, devoid of feathers. A small bird olive-green in color with brightly colored breast was found in Laotian forests redkorastuschem growing in the rough karst rocks. In Currently the territory in which the birds were found, is part of a protected conservation area, but community members say that the development of limestone in the region, as well as agricultural activities in the future may harm members of an unusual ecosystem. Previously, scientists have been exposed to unusual new species in the area: ha nude or Lao rock rat – a unique rodent species, adapted to life in the limestone rocks, as well as a unique species of rabbits with fur, painted in red stripes.

Because of climate warming reduces cold-blooded animals living American scientists follow in order how the life expectancy of terrestrial, freshwater and marine organisms in different cold-climate zones and concluded that cold-blooded animals such as fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and lizards, live longer at higher latitudes, but not in the tropics and the equator. This pattern holds for all types of cold-blooded, average life expectancy which can range from a few days before several centuries. As a result, the analysis of the data in the study, researchers discovered that the temperature climate in a particular area is the main parameter that determines the longevity of cold-blooded, moreover, this dependence is exponential.

Earth Sun

Why methane so scattered in the rocks, and the extraction coal mines literally "oozes" from all the time? A and is sometimes found even where no bacteria could not be srodu? But it seems that all of these questions you can try to give an answer. The essence of the explanation in the following. By hypothesis BM Kuzhevskogo 1, our sun is, so-called "neutron crown." That is, the Earth Sun fires neutrons, which have very low energy and even held up the earth's atmosphere. But let us imagine that once, perhaps billions of years ago, "Neutron crown" was much stronger than today. Then, fast neutrons, "proshivaya" bowels of the earth, and slowing down the carbon (of which at that time mainly consisted of the Earth), underwent beta decay. Or, in other words, turned into protons (and electrons and antineutrinos), which is known to be the nuclei of hydrogen atomamov. If we consider that the neutron radiation is penetrating to the species, it is probably understand how hydrogen could fall into the bowels of the earth and form a variety of hydrocarbons.

And, keep in mind that this "bombing" lasted millions or even tens of millions of years at least, since the Sun faster just could not calm down. Water well as a number of organic compounds resulting from the interaction of hydrocarbons with oxygen-containing compounds and oxides of various metals, because free oxygen was absent and was formed just out of the water and not vice versa. So, a little more about the water.

Resonance Earth

To measure (to assess both quantitatively and qualitatively) any energy field we need to create a cavity for it. Moreover, the device must have the same geometric proportions, which are inherent in the object under study (the emitter of the field). Such a device called Cavity forms, ie, for such a measuring device plays an important role resonance form than private performance of the radiator at resonance. Since this point is very important for understanding resonance, we repeat the same few paraphrase: Examining the phenomenon of resonance (electromagnetic, mechanical or any other) there is a curious pattern: the resonance phenomena most successfully occur at identical spatial geometry of resonating objects. Moreover, regardless of size: that is, macroform may interact not only with the commensurate structure, but microform. The density of the crust, mantle and core of the Earth – is different.

Because of the discrepancy between the axes of rotation and the difference in density of the Earth, we find that Earth's magnetic field, which also have at the moment. From this we can conclude that our measuring field of the Earth must be the same or a geometrical ratio, as a planet, or that we are acceptable to repeat its geometric proportions. This will occur Resonance forms for which observance of proportions is of prime importance, not individual characteristics of the radiation observed at the resonance phenomena. Subject to the geometry and at a certain speed the interaction of all structural elements can be a resonance phenomenon with Earth's magnetic field.

Hubble Galaxies

Stars, producing around a spatial field, would be removed from each other, if they had not kept a gravitational field. 2. Gravitational field, holding the stars in stellar associations galaxies 'squeezes' the spatial field in intergalactic space. 3. Gravity share holding in the galaxy clusters, squeezes generated field space in metagalactic space increasing, thus, the total volume of the universe.

4. Increased Metagalaxy leads to a mutual distance from each other galaxy clusters. 5. The farther away from us is observed object, the greater the thickness of a newly formed space, we see it, the sooner he is removed on tons of us. In fact, in this case must be observed redshift galaxies, ie it must be observed proportionality of the rate of removal of galaxies as a function of distance from them, in accordance with the law of Hubble. Generated by the spatial field, as the force repulsive galaxy, is meaningful only in the intergalactic distances and it is much weaker gravitational field. This is because the strength of the gravitational field decreases depending on the square of the distance, and the generation of space occurs in some linear law, and therefore at greater distances, it begins to exceed the attractive forces. On the action force, the repulsive galaxies can be comparable to the cosmological "lambda-member" in Einstein's equations. At the very large distances the effect of this force leads to the fact that the space objects are gravitationally not dependent on each other and they can move at speeds exceeding the speed of light.